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Refractive surgeries aim to correct refractive errors such as nearsightedness (myopia). farsightedness (hyperopia), astigmatism or presbyopia. A number of surgical procedures can be done to correct or adjust your eyes' ability to focus, which includes reshaping the cornea (the clear surface in front of your eye) or implanting a lens inside your eyes.

To treat nearsightedness, the refractive surgeon would opt to reduce the curvature of the retina so the eye's focusing power is reduced and the images that were once was focused in front of the retina due to the steep corneal curve can be pushed directly onto the retina after surgery.

As for farsightedness, it can be treated by creating a steeper cornea to increase the eye's focusing power. Images that are focused beyond the retina, due to a short eye or flat cornea, will be pulled closer to or directly onto the retina after surgery.

Astigmatism can be treated by reshaping portions of an irregular cornea to make it smooth and symmetrical. The result is that images focus clearly on the retina rather than being distorted due to light scattering through an irregularly shaped cornea.

Refractive surgery is definitely a good option if you are planning to reduce your dependency on glasses or lenses. The procedure is recommended for people ageing from 18 - 40 years old. 


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SMILE, also known as Small Incision Lenticule Extraction is the most advanced type of Refractive surgery. SMILE uses a  femtosecond laser to reshape the cornea, which is extremely short-pulsed.


The femtosecond laser produces a micro-precision single bubble that form planes in the corneal tissue without affecting the surrounding tissue. The laser took approximately 23 seconds to create a small lens-shaped piece of lenticule (corneal tissue) inside the cornea. The surgeon then removes the lenticule through a small incision outer part of the eye. This reshapes the cornea and corrects the refractive error.

At PPMLU, we use the ground-breaking machine from CarlZeiss, the Zeiss VisuMax which employs high-performance femtosecond laser technology characterized by its cutting precision, speed and gentle treatment technique.


Femto-LASIK is an innovational form of LASIK which may also be considered the future of LASIK.  The Femto-LASIK procedure differs than the traditional LASIK in the first step of the LASIK surgery.


When creating the corneal flap, Femto-LASIK uses the Carl Zeiss (Germany) VisuMax Femtosecond laser instead of the conventional microkeratome blade, which makes Femto-LASIK a bladeless, all-laser form of LASIK. Once the corneal flap is made, the Carl Zeiss MEL 80 excimer laser is used to provide wavefront correction which then gives the patients a spectacle-free life.

This technologically advanced for of LASIK allows for a smoother flap interface, and its patented curved contact surface increases patient comfort by kindling minimal pressure on the cornea.

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Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) Surgery

PRK uses a laser to treat vision problem by changing the shape of your cornea. This then helps to improve the way light rays are focused on the retina. Often, PRK is used to treat myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.

During PRK, your eye will be numbed with an eye drop. Then, the surgeon would outer layer cells of your cornea using alcohol before reshaping your cornea using a laser that has been programmed with measurements for your eye.

PRK is suitable for people with thin corneas as compared to the other types of refractive surgeries. PRK is also suitable for patients with an active lifestyle or job as it does not involve cutting a flap in your cornea.